Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
In other sections we emphasized the importance of liquid solutions as a medium for chemical reactions. Water is by far the most important liquid solventThe substance to which a solute is added to make a solution., partly because it is plentiful and partly because of its unique properties. In your body, in other living systems, and in the outside environment a tremendous number of reactions take place in aqueous solutions. Consequently this section, as well as significant portions of many subsequent sections, will be devoted to developing an understanding of reactions which occur in water. Since ionic compounds and polarDescribes a molecule that has separated, equal positive and negative charges that consitute a positive and a negative pole; such a molecule tends to assume certain orientations more than others in an electric field. covalent compounds constitute the main classes which are appreciably solubleAble to dissolve in a solvent to a significant extent. in water, reactions in aqueous solutions usually involve these types of substances.
Reactions in aqueous solutions usually involve ionic or polar covalent compounds. The solubilities of such compounds are enhanced because of their interactions with water molecules, especially the hydration of ions. Measurement of the electrical current conducted by a solution of known concentrationA measure of the ratio of the quantity of a substance to the quantity of solvent, solution, or ore. Also, the process of making something more concentrated. enables us to determine whether a soluteThe substance added to a solvent to make a solution. is an electrolyteA substance that dissolves to produce a solution containing ions, which cause the solution to conduct electricity., and, if so, of what type. Water itself is an extremely weak electrolyte, producing hydronium ions and hydroxide ions, each at a concentration of 1.00 × 10–7 mol dm–3 at 25°C.
There are three important classes of reactions which occur in aqueous solution: precipitation reactions, acid-base reactions, and redox reactions. Whether or not a precipitate will form when solutions of about 0.1 M concentration are mixed can be predicted using the solubility rules. Precipitation reactions are useful for detecting the presence of various ions and for determining the concentrations of solutions.
Acid-base reactions and redox reactions are similar in that something is being transferred from one species to another. Acid-base reactions involve protonThe positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus; its mass is similar to the mass of a hydrogen atom. transfers, while redox reactions involve electronA negatively charged, sub-atomic particle with charge of 1.602 x 10-19 coulombs and mass of9.109 x 1023 kilograms; electrons have both wave and particle properties; electrons occupy most of the volume of an atom but represent only a tiny fraction of an atom's mass. transfers. Redox reactions are somewhat more complicated, though, because proton transfers and other bond-making and bond-breaking processes occur at the same time as electron transfer. Both proton transfer and electron transfer can be broken into half-equations: one to describe donation of a proton (or electrons), and one to describe acceptance of a proton (or electrons). For acid-base reactions, each half-equation involves a conjugate acidThe acid formed when a base accepts a hydrogen ion (proton).-base pair. For oxidation-reductionThat part of a chemical reaction in which a reactant gains electrons; simultaneous oxidation of a reactant must occur. reactions, each half-equation involves a redox couple.
Both conjugate acid-base pairs and redox couples may be tabulated in order of acidic strength, basic strength, oxidizing power and reducing power. Such behavior is also quantified in terms of acid constants, base constants and reduction potentials. In each case such tabulations may be used to determine whether a given reaction will go to completion, occur only to a limited extent, or not occur at all.