Properties of Alkanes
Other things being equal, the more carbon atomsThe smallest particle of an element that can be involved in chemical combination with another element; an atom consists of protons and neutrons in a tiny, very dense nucleus, surrounded by electrons, which occupy most of its volume., the higher the boiling pointThe temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid; usually this is atmospheric pressure. of an alkaneA hydrocarbon containing only single bonds between carbon atoms.. As can be seen from the table of straight chain alkanes, boilingThe process of a liquid becoming vapor in which bubbles of vapor form beneath the surface of the liquid; at the boiling temperature the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid. points rise steadily from CH4 which has a boiling point of -162oC to C10H22 which has a boiling point of 174oC as each additional CH2 groupThose elements that comprise a single column of the periodic table. Also called family. is added to the chain.
The reason for this rise is an increase in the intermolecular forces. As shown in the following figure, larger molecules can make close contact with each other over a much larger surface area than can smaller molecules. The total force exerted between the two is thus greater. In the same way we can also explain why branched-chain hydrocarbons boil at lower temperatures than straight-chain compounds. The branched molecules are more compact and provide less area over which intermolecular forces can act.
The alkanes are rather unreactive and do not combine readily with other substances. When heated sufficiently, however, they burn in air, a process known as combustionVigorous combination of a material with oxygen gas, usually resulting in a flame.:
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) ΔHm = –890.4 kJ mol–1
The following video showcases this combustion reaction of methane with oxygen:
Two balloons, one filled with methane, and one filled with a 1:1 by volume mixtureA combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their chemical identity. of methane and oxygen are ignited. The video also shows these reactions in the dark, where it is easier to see the difference. The oxygen/methane mixture balloon explodes much more violently. Looking at the equation above, it is easy to understand why. The mixture in that balloon is much closer to the stoichiometryThe relationship among the amounts of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. of the reaction than the pure methane balloon, which must react with oxygen in the atmosphereA unit of pressure equal to 101.325 kPa or 760 mmHg; abbreviated atm. Also, the mixture of gases surrounding the earth. which it is not mixed with. Note that the major products of this reaction are water, CO2 and heat. Combustion releases large quantities of heat; not surprisingly, the most important use of alkanes is as fuels. Natural gasA state of matter in which a substance occupies the full volume of its container and changes shape to match the shape of the container. In a gas the distance between particles is much greater than the diameters of the particles themselves; hence the distances between particles can change as necessary so that the matter uniformly occupies its container. is mainly (approximately 85 percent) methane.
Propane or liquefied petroleum gas sold in tanks for portable use is usually a mixture of both propane and butane. Though both are gases at ordinary temperature and pressureForce per unit area; in gases arising from the force exerted by collisions of gas molecules with the wall of the container., they liquefy under pressure in the tank. Gasoline is a more complexA central metal and the ligands surrounding it; also called coordination complex. mixture of alkanes having 5 to 12 carbon atoms. Better-quality gasoline usually contains a higher percentage of branch-chain alkanes than the regular grade. Kerosene contains C10 to C16 alkanes, while heating oil usually involves the C12 to C18 range. Even longer-chain alkanes are found in lubricating oil, C15 to C25 and paraffin wax (used for candles and waxed paper), C23 to C29.
The variation of boiling point with chain length in the alkanes provides a simple method for partially separating them from each other in petroleum. When petroleum is heated, the shorter-chain compounds begin to boil off initially. These can be collected by cooling the vaporThe gaseous state of a substance that typically exists as a liquid or solid; a gas at a temperature near or below the boiling point of the corresponding liquid. until it recondenses to a liquidA state of matter in which the atomic-scale particles remain close together but are able to change their positions so that the matter takes the shape of its container. As boiling proceeds, the temperature rises and longer and longer-chain compounds boil off. Finally only the very long chain compounds are left. Such a process is called fractional distillationA technique for separating the components of a liquid mixture or solution by vaporizing a portion of the liquid and condensing its vapor in a separate container. and is discussed more in depth in the section on distillation. Fractional distillation plays an important role in petroleum refining, which is a series of physical and chemical processes by which the most valuable and useful components are obtained from natural crude oil.
The alkanes are typical examples of nonpolarDescribes a molecule with no net permanent dipole; this can occur when there is no separation of centers of positive and negative electrical charge or because there are bond dipoles that cancel each others' effects. A polar molecule will assume certain orientations more than others in an electric field. compounds. The electronegativities of carbon and hydrogen are 2.5 and 2.1, respectively, and so the C—H bond has almost no polarity. Consequently, even the most unsymmetrical hydrocarbon molecules have very small dipole moments. We can therefore take the boiling-point behavior of the alkanes to be representative of other nonpolar substances. Simple molecules are gases, while medium-sized molecules are liquids, and only quite large molecules are solids.
ChiralityAlkanes have carbons with four single bonds. In most examples you have seen, these are all to either hydrogen or to other carbon atoms. Later, we will look at molecules where carbon is bonded to other elements such as oxygen or nitrogen. However, even when carbon only bonds to hydrogen and carbon, we still see a type of stereoisomerism that is different from cisDescribes the relationship between two atoms or groups of atoms, each attached to one of two doubly bonded carbon atoms and located on the same side of the double bond. Also refers to groups located adjacent to each other in an octahedral or square planar coordination complex./transDescribes the relationship between two atoms or groups of atoms, each attached to one of two doubly bonded carbon atoms and located on the opposite side of the double bond. Also refers to groups located opposite to each other in an octahedral or square planar coordination complex. isomerism. Take a look at
A simple example of two things which are stereoisomers is our hands. No matterAnything that occupies space and has mass; contrasted with energy. what you do, you cannot put one hand on top of the other and have both of the palms facing down and the thumbs pointing in the same direction. The same is true for the molecules in Figure 1. There is no way to rotate one molecule so that A points up, and all of the other species point in similar directions to the other molecule. To obtain an optical isomer of a chiral carbon, the stereocenter must be inverted. This is much like reflection through a mirror. If you hold a right hand up to a mirror and compare it to your left hand (not reflected through a mirror), you will find that the mirror image of your right hand matches your left hand!
In order to find chiral carbons in a simple alkane, find any carbon which has four different things attached to it. For instance, in the following molecule, see how there is a hydrogen, a three-carbon chain (propyl group), a two-carbon chain (ethyl group), and a one-carbon chain (methyl group) attached to the central carbon.
Example 1 Find all chiral carbons in the following molecules.
SolutionA mixture of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent to give a homogeneous mixture.. First, we will name the molecule according to IUPAC guidelines. The molecule on the left is called 2,5-dimethylheptane, the numbering starts so as to get the lowest overall numbers and therefore begins with carbon 1 on the far right. This molecule has two possibilities. Carbons 2 and 5, as all other carbons have at least two hydrogens and therefore cannot be chiral. Carbon 2 has a hydrogen, the long chain, and then two methyl groups and thus is not chiral. Carbon 5 has a hydrogen, a methyl, an ethyl and then a long carbon chain and thus is indeed chiral.
The second molecule is named 3,4,5-trimethylheptane and is symmetrical, so the numbering is the same from either side. Due to this symmetry, the center carbon (carbon 4) cannot be chiral (the two long chains are identical). Thus only carbons 3 and 5 are chiral. Both molecules are shown again below with their chiral carbons - or stereocenters - indicated by a black dot.