Colligative Properties of Solutions
The colligative properties of a solutionA mixture of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent to give a homogeneous mixture. are those which depend on the number of particles (and hence the amount) of soluteThe substance added to a solvent to make a solution. dissolved in a given quantity of solventThe substance to which a solute is added to make a solution., irrespective of the chemical nature of those particles. We have already seen from Raoult’s law that the vapor pressureThe pressure (or partial pressure) exerted by the gaseous form of a substance in equilibrium with the liquid form. of a solution depends on the mole fractionIn a mixture, the chemical amount (moles) of one substance divided by the total chemical amount (moles) of all substances present. of solute, and now we are in a position to see how this affects several other properties of solutions.