The Visible and Ultraviolet Spectra of Molecules: Molecular Orbitals
When molecules absorb or emit radiation in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, this almost always corresponds to the transition of an electron from a low-energyA system's capacity to do work. to a high-energy orbitalA mathematically defined region of electron density around one or more atoms; a wave function that defines the properties of a particular electron in an atom or molecule., or vice versa. One might expect the spectra of molecules to be like the atomic line spectra shown in Fig. 1, but in fact molecular spectra are very different. Consider, for example, the absorption spectrumThe quantity of light a sample absorbs (its [[absorbance]]) plotted as a function of wavelength, frequency, or energy. An absorption spectrum of a substance often can help to identify the substance. of the rather beautiful purple-violet gasA state of matter in which a substance occupies the full volume of its container and changes shape to match the shape of the container. In a gas the distance between particles is much greater than the diameters of the particles themselves; hence the distances between particles can change as necessary so that the matter uniformly occupies its container. I2. This molecule strongly absorbs photons whose wavelengths are between 440 and 600 nm, and much of the orange, yellow, and green components of white light are removed. The light which passes through a sample of I2 is mainly blue and red. When analyzed with an average quality spectroscope, this light gives the spectrum shown in Fig. 2a. Instead of the few discrete lines typical of atoms, we now have a broad, apparently continuous, absorptionPermeation of a solid by a gas or liquid, or permeation of a liquid by a gas. Absorption differs from adsorption in that the substance absorbed is found throughout the absorbent. band. This is typical of molecules.
Why is there this difference between atomic and molecular spectra? An answer begins to appear if we use a somewhat more expensive spectroscope. Figure (2b) shows a tracing of the I2 spectrum made with such an instrument. What originally appeared to he a continuous band is now shown to consist of a very large number of very narrow, closely spaced lines. Thus the broad absorption band of I2 is actually made up of discrete lines. The reason molecules give rise to such an enormous number of lines is that molecules can vibrate and rotate in a very large number of ways while atoms cannot. Furthermore both rotational levels and vibrational motion are quantized. When a molecule absorbs a photon of light and an electron is excited to a higher orbital, the molecule will not be stationary either before or after the absorption of the photon. The process of absorption is thus
Ground-state molecule excited-state molecule
in one of many → in another of many
rotational-vibrational states rotational-vibrational states
Because of the large number of energy possibilities both before and after the transition, a very large number of lines of slightly different wavelengths is obtained. A careful analysis of these lines yields much valuable information about the way in which the molecule rotates and vibrates. In particular, very accurate values of bond enthalpies and bond lengths can be obtained from a study of the fine structure of an absorption band like that shown in Fig. 2b.