Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium
With some familiarity with the properties of single electrons, such as the single electron around the hydrogen nucleusThe collection of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom that contains nearly all of the atoms's mass. above, we can discuss atomsThe smallest particle of an element that can be involved in chemical combination with another element; an atom consists of protons and neutrons in a tiny, very dense nucleus, surrounded by electrons, which occupy most of its volume. containing more than one electron. The images found here depict electron wave density by number of dots. Thus, more dots indicates more electron density 'cloud' in that region. In these diagrams, each electron wave is displayed with a different color and you can toggle the view of each electron wave on and off using the buttons below the dot density diagrams.
The first elementA substance containing only one kind of atom and that therefore cannot be broken down into component substances by chemical means. in the periodic tableA chart showing the symbols of the elements arranged in order by atomic number and having chemically related elements appearing in columns. with more than one electron is helium, which has two electrons. Dot-density diagrams for both these electrons are shown below. One electron is color coded in blue, and the other in green. Note that both electrons occupy the same orbitalA mathematically defined region of electron density around one or more atoms; a wave function that defines the properties of a particular electron in an atom or molecule., namely, a 1s orbital. It turns out that 2 is the maximum number of electrons any orbital can hold. This restriction is connected with a property of the electrons not yet discussed, namely, their spin. Electrons can not only move about from place to place, but they can also rotate or spin about themselves. Two orientations (clockwise and counterclockwise, referred to as spin up or spin down) are possible for this spin. According to the Pauli exclusion principleThe statement that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers; the principle leads to the rule that only two electrons (having opposite spin) can occupy an atomic orbital., if two electrons occupy the same orbital, they must have opposite spins. Two such electrons are said to be spin paired and are often represented by arrows pointing in different directions, i.e., by the symbol . Two electrons spinning in the same direction are said to have their spins parallel and are indicated by . The Pauli principle implies that if two electrons have parallel spins, they must occupy different orbitals.
An obvious feature of the helium atom shown below is that it is somewhat smaller than the hydrogen atom drawn to the same scale above. This contraction is caused by the increase in the charge on the nucleus from +1 in the hydrogen atom to +2 in the helium atom. This pulls both the green and the blue electron clouds in more tightly. This effect is offset, but to a lesser extent, by the mutual repulsion of the two electron clouds.
In the dot density image below, the three electrons of the lithium atom are color-coded blue, green, and red. As in the previous atom, two electrons (blue and green) occupy the 1s orbital. The Pauli principle prevents more than two electrons from occupying this orbital, and so the third (red) electron must occupy the next higher orbital in energyA system's capacity to do work., namely, the 2s orbital. A convenient shorthand form for indicating this electron configurationA representation of the number of electrons of an atom or ion and the orbitals in which they lie. For example, the electron configuration of oxygen is 1s22s22p4. is
The superscripts 2 and 1 indicate that there are two electrons in the 1s orbital and one electron in the 2s orbital, respectively.
As in the case of helium, the increase in nuclear charge to +3 produces a corresponding reductionThat part of a chemical reaction in which a reactant gains electrons; simultaneous oxidation of a reactant must occur. in the size of the lithium 1s orbital. In sharp contrast to this compact inner orbital is the very large and very diffuse cloud of the outer 2s electron. There are two reasons why this 2s cloud is so large. The first reason is that the principal quantum numberOne of a set of numbers that specifies the state of an electron in an atom; the set of quantum numbers summarize results from quantum mechanics. n has increased from 1 to 2. As shown in Figure 1 of the Orbitals page, the 2s electron cloud is bigger than 1s even in the hydrogen atom with a nuclear charge of only +1. A second reason is that the two 1s electrons are usually closer to the nucleus than the 2s electron. These two 1s electrons have the effect of screening or shieldingThe effect of (negatively charged) electrons close to a (positively charged) nucleus in diminishing the attractive force between the nucleus and other electrons in the atom. Also called screening. the outer electron from the full attractive force of the +3 charge on the nucleus. When the 2s electron is some distance from the nucleus, it “sees” not only the +3 charge on the nucleus but also the two negative charges close by. The overall effect is almost as though two of the three positive charges on the nucleus are canceled, leaving a net charge of + 1 to hold the outer electron to the atom. This situation can also be described by saying that the effective nuclear chargeIn a multi-electron atom, the positive charge that a particular electron experiences; depends on the positive charge on the nucleus, the negative charges on all other electrons, and the locations of those electrons relative to the electron in question. is close to +1.
It should be clear from Plate 4 that when a lithium atom interacts with another atom, the 2s electron is far more likely to be involved than either of the two 1s electrons. In Lewis’ terminology, it is a valence electronIn a neutral atom, any of the electrons found in the highest occupied shell as well as any electrons in incompletely filled subshells of lower shells. and occupies a valence shell. The pair of 1s electrons are a complete shell and form the kernel of the lithium atom. There is thus a close correspondence between the wave-mechanical picture and Lewis’ earlier, less mathematical ideas. It is also worth noting that the wave model of lithium gives a spherical atom―a great advance over the elongated orbits which were needed to describe the alkaliAny substance in aqueous solution that is bitter, irritating to the skin, and has a pH value greater than 7.0.-metalAn element characterized by a glossy surface, high thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility. atoms in the Bohr theory (see image of the Bohr atom).