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- Abbreviation for ribonucleic acidA biological polymer, derived from nucleotide monomers, that is involved in protein synthesis. Abbreviated RNA.; a biological polymerA large molecule containing a large number of repeating units; a substance formed from such molecules. of nucleotides that is involved in proteinA biological polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. synthesisFormation of substances with more complicated sturctures than do their precursors..