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- In Arrhenius theory, a substanceA material that is either an element or that has a fixed ratio of elements in its chemical formula. that produces hydrogen ions (hydronium ions) in aqueousDescribing a solution in which the solvent is water. solutionA mixture of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent to give a homogeneous mixture.. In Bronsted-Lowry theory, a hydrogen-ion (protonThe positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus; its mass is similar to the mass of a hydrogen atom.) donor. In Lewis theory, a species that accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bondThe attractive force between one atom (nucleus and core electrons) and another atom as a result of sharing electrons..