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- An organicRefers to the branch of chemistry that studies compounds containing carbon, usually in combination with hydrogen and other elements such as O, N, S, and P. Certain small ions and compounds containing carbon (such as carbonate ions and carbon dioxide) are not considered to be organic, but rather are classed as inorganic. compoundA substance made up of two or more elements and having those elements present in definite proportions; a compound can be decomposed into two or more different substances. consisting of a purine or pyrimidine baseIn Arrhenius theory, a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. In Bronsted-Lowry theory, a hydrogen-ion (proton) acceptor. In Lewis theory, a species that donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. bonded to a sugarA small carbohydrate that either contains five or six carbon atoms or is a dimer of two units, each containing five or six carbon atoms. that is bonded to a phosphate groupThose elements that comprise a single column of the periodic table. Also called family.; a monomerOne of the units that joins with other units to form a polymer. for DNAAbbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; the polymer of nucleotides that constitutes the genetic material of chromosomes. or RNAAbbreviation for ribonucleic acid; a biological polymer of nucleotides that is involved in protein synthesis..