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- An acidIn Arrhenius theory, a substance that produces hydrogen ions (hydronium ions) in aqueous solution. In Bronsted-Lowry theory, a hydrogen-ion (proton) donor. In Lewis theory, a species that accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. containing hydrogen, oxygen, and another elementA substance containing only one kind of atom and that therefore cannot be broken down into component substances by chemical means.. Also called oxyacidAn acid containing hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. Also called oxoacid. Examples are nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids.. Examples are nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids.